tego samego autora (Samolubny gen, Fenotyp rozszerzony i Ślepy zegarmistrz ). Dawkins zaczyna książkę od z pozoru zaskakującego, ale prawdziwego. The Selfish Gene is a book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, in which the author builds upon the principal theory of George C. Williams’s Adaptation and. geny = naśladownictwo(replikacja). naśladownictwo = teoria memów. Dziękujemy za uwage!!! Richard Dawkins.,,Samolubny Gen,,. Mutacja.
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However, as we shall see, there are special circumstances in which a gene can achieve its own selfish goals best by fostering a limited form of altruism at the level of individual animals.
Kern; Keller, Laurent In Gilgen, Albert R. London School of Economics. Selected Writings of a Passionate Rationalist Looking for beautiful books?
Experiments conducted over many years by social psychologists have revealed how swiftly and decisively people divide into groups, and then discriminate in favor of the one to which they belong. Thompson goes on to suggest that the cell-environment interrelationship has much to do with reproduction and inheritance, and a focus on the gene as a form of “information [that] passes through bodies and affects them, but is not affected by them on its way through”  is tantamount to adoption of a form of material-informational dualism that has no explanatory value and no scientific basis.
In Mind in Lifethe philosopher Evan Thompson has assembled a multi-sourced objection to the “selfish gene” idea.
Samolubny gen richard dawkins by Ryszard Łagowski on Prezi
It is the gene, the unit of heredity. Inthe ecologist Arthur Cainone of Dawkins’s tutors at Oxford in the s, called it a “young man’s book” which Dawkins points out was a deliberate quote of a commentator on the New College, Oxford [a] philosopher A. Letters on the Evolution of Life and Human Nature. Dawkins says the gene is the fundamental unit of selection, and then points out that selection doesn’t act directly upon the gene, but upon ‘vehicles’ or ‘extended phenotypes’.
Dawikns it contains no reference to the “selfish gene”, Wilson probably is referring to Nowak, M. A Darwinian View Paperback ed. Altruism too can evolve, as in the social insects such as ants and bees, where workers give grn the right to reproduce in favour of a sister, the queen; in their case, the unusual haplodiploid system of sex determination may have helped to bring this about, as females in a nest are exceptionally closely related.
Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship: Gould Beyond Belief Richard Dawkins: The final chapter of the first edition introduced the idea of the memea culturally-transmitted entity such as a hummable tune, by analogy to genetic transmission.
A lineage is expected to evolve to maximise its inclusive fitness —the number of copies of its genes passed on globally rather than by a particular individual. In describing genes as being “selfish”, Dawkins states unequivocally that he does not intend samokubny imply that they are driven by any motives or willbut merely that their effects can be metaphorically and pedagogically described as if they were.
Dawkins argues qualitatively that the lottery for the gene is based upon a very long and broad record of events, and group advantages are usually too specific, too brief, and too fortuitous to change the gene lottery. These examples might suggest that there is a power struggle between genes and their interactor.
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Adaptation and Natural Selection: It has sold over a million copies, and has been translated into more than 25 languages.
Journal of Theoretical Biology. Niniejsza edycja, autorsko przejrzana, oparta na jubileuszowym wydaniu brytyjskim z okazji trzydziestolecia pierwszego wydaniazawiera nowe Wprowadzenie autora.
Although Dawkins agrees that cawkins can assist survival, they rank as a “vehicle” for survival only if the group activity is replicated in descendants, recorded in the gene, the gene being the only true replicator. The Selfish Dqwkins further popularised sociobiology in Japan after its translation in As a result, populations will tend towards an evolutionarily stable strategy.
The claim still is made by some that it would asmolubny only a single individual with a tendency towards more selfish behaviour to undermine a population otherwise filled only with the gene for altruism towards non-kin. According to the ethologist Alan Grafenacceptance of adaptionist theories is hampered by a lack of a mathematical unifying theory and a belief that anything in words alone must be suspect.
An example of this might be a gene that protects the organism against a disease. Another criticism of the book is its treatment of morality, and more particularly altruism, as existing only as a dawknis of selfishness:. Fisher showed that the optimal sex ratio is In this book I am using the word ‘vehicle’ for an integrated and coherent ‘instrument of replicator preservation’.
The Selfish Gene 30th Anniversary ed. In Hull, David L. The philosopher Mary Midgley has suggested samolubhy position is a variant of Hobbes’ explanation of altruism as enlightened self-interestand that Dawkins goes a step further to suggest that our genetic samoolubny can be overcome by what amounts to an extreme version of free will. Dawkins writes that gene combinations which help an organism to survive and reproduce tend to also improve the gene’s own chances of being replicated, and, as a result, “successful” genes frequently provide a benefit to the organism.