Ibn Miskawayh, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (c). Like so many of his contemporaries in the fourth and fifth centuries ah (tenth and eleventh centuries ad). Like so many of his contemporaries in the fourth and fifth centuries AH (tenth and eleventh centuries ad) Ibn Miskawayh was eclectic in philosophy, basing his. Ahmad Ibn Muhammad (Ibn) Miskawayh (ca//). A contemporary of Ibn Sina and al-Biruni, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Miskawayh was born in.

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That is, he did not speak about preparing the boy for work, and his various roles as producer and consumer, one with a profession or craft or labour by which to provide for his future.

He evolves into a higher stage and becomes an angel. History, the discipline that studies the chronological record of events as affecting ubn nation or peoplebased on a critical examination of source materials and usually presenting an explanation of their causes.

Those few works that are edited miskqwayh the correct name, Miskawayh; and that is how he is referred to by his contemporaries and the intellectuals and writers who worked with him [3].

Miskawayh – Wikipedia

Although Miskawayh indicated society in a city, and its necessity for the human being, he did not refer to the various kinds of work with its necessity and importance for the permanence of this city and also for the human beings living in it. Nor did he attempt to combine them, as was done by the Brethren of Purity for example; but the opinions he set forth remained Greek in nature, and usually attributed to their original exponents [7]. We ought to keep our emotions under control and carry out practices that help both to restrain us on particular occasions and also to develop personality traits that will maintain that level of restraint throughout our lives.

Ibn Miskawayh was one of the first to clearly describe a version of the idea of evolution.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: He represents the tendency in Islamic philosophy to fit Islam into a wider system of rational practices common to all humanity. He was fluent enough in Middle Persian to have translated some pre-Islamic texts in that language into Arabic. Historical Dictionary of Islam. Nadia Jamal al-Din, in: This being so, it is easy to refer the idea back to its original source, since Aristotle presented it in his book the Nicomachean Ethics [14].


Hence, although Miskawayh lived in an Islamic cultural environment, he directed his intellect to Greek thought, and his aims for upbringing and training and refinement, or education in today’s language, were an expression of the culture which he had borrowed from, not the culture in which he lived.

Ya’qub Miskawayh also known as Ibn Miskawayh was born.

Then is born the lowest of animals. In addition, there are conditions in the environment surrounding the human being, inasmuch as human society is miskkawayh of the basic conditions of reaching supreme happiness.

Ibn Miskawayh, Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yaqub

This mystical level of happiness seems to rank higher than mere intellectual perfection, yet Ibn Miskawayh is particularly interesting in the practical advice he gives on how to develop our ordinary capacity for virtue.

This is the final aim of man’s journey through life, the conclusion of his work and his service here; and his striving to purify his character, as Miskawayh prescribed, and presented to others who desired his knowledge, in the hope of being helped to realize it. For he distinguishes between reason and faith, or between philosophy and religion, since the supreme happiness is a human happiness, one which is neither imposed on man nor withheld from him by anything outside the scope of his will, and issuing from an intellect miskqwayh and stronger than his [19].

This is not the statement of Darwin.

If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. Ibn Miskawayh’s work on ethics, however, is of a much higher order, and does show evidence of considerable conceptual complexity. He has an unusual account of emanation, wherein miskqwayh deity produces the active intellect, the soul and the heavens without intermediaries, making one suspect mis,awayh he did not have a firm grasp of the distinction between emanation and creation.

The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh

Matter, therefore, adopted the form of vapour which assumed the shape of water in due time. Miskawayh remarks that these opinions are taken from Aristotle, but he very soon turns in another direction to present the boy’s soul and its faculties in a picture that agrees with what Plato had earlier said in the Republic.

He was a member of the distinguished group of intellectuals including al-Tawhidi and al-Sijistani. To sum up the foregoing, the basic aim of training and miskzwayh and acquisition of knowledge, and working by it, is the refinement and purification of the soul: So he did not consider preparation for earthly life, from the angle of work and acquiring a livelihood, to be among the aims of the upbringing and training of young boys. The basic responsibility for this falls upon the parents [42].


God indicates the huge gap that exists between him and us by setting us unpleasant and difficult tasks. Maybe Miskawayh himself emphasizes this in his looking at philosophy and its divisions, for he sees that it is divided into two parts: Besides all this, the basic conditions for reaching happiness are psychological conditions and factors; this is because training the soul, cleansing it, teaching it, making it profit from general and particular experiences, are centred on the human’s will and his ability to raise mmiskawayh inclinations, so as to attain the degree of happiness appropriate for him.

If miskawayn soul were only an accident it could do none of these things, but could only perform in the limited way of the physical parts of the body.

Ibn Miskawayh uses the notion of friendship to distinguish between those relationships that are essentially transitory and variable in particular those based upon pleasure and those based upon the intellect, which are also pleasurable but not in a physical way. Maybe this simply indicates how much he was influenced by the culture coming to the Islamic nation, and well known at his time.

Miskawayh is one of the outstanding personalities in the history of philosophical thought among the Muslims; so, as seems clear, his fame did not come about as a result of his involvement with teaching or with writing on education, in our modern terms, but his fame arose from his work in philosophy. In connection with this, too, Miskawayh warns against sleeping for too long; for this makes him lazy, dulls his mind, and deadens his thought; and he determines the boy must be prevented from sleeping at all during the day [49].

Miskawayh considers that if these manners are commendable for the poor, it is even better to have the rich seek them.